Yousef M. Al-Saraireh1*, Ahmed M.M. Youssef2, Ahmad Za’al Alsarayreh3, Tayel A. Al Hujran4, Sameeh Al-Sarayreh5, Jehad M. Al-Shuneigat5, Hamzeh Mohammad Alrawashdeh6

© 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 9 (1), 13-23, 2021 ISSN 0719-4250

Context: Euphorbia hierosolymitana is a member of Euphorbia species having a restricted use in traditional medicine in eastern Mediterranean countries. Aims: To phytochemically analyze different extracts of Euphorbia hierosolymitana and to investigate their anti-cancer activity against a panel of different cancer cell lines. Methods: The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by n-butanol and ethyl acetate. Each extract was subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the bioactive compounds. Additionally, the anti-cancer activity of each extract compared to positive control doxorubicin was evaluated against a panel of different cancer and normal cell lines by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the different extracts revealed different compounds of alkane hydrocarbons, fatty acids, sterols, phenols, glycosides, alkaloids, indol alkaloids, terpenoids, pyridine derivatives, and desulphosinigrin. Regarding anti-cancer activity, the n-butanol extract exhibited a significant selective concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in the colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) compared to other normal and cancer cell lines. This selective differential was comparable to the positive control, doxorubicin. The ethyl acetate extract, however, showed a significant cytotoxic activity among all the tested cell lines compared to the positive control. This cytotoxicity was in a concentration-dependent manner and weak to normal cell line (Wi38). Conclusions: The selective differential in anti-cancer activity between different types of extracts is attractive and holds significant promise for the development of new cancer therapies. © 2021 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research