Animal Feed Science and Technology 168 (2011) 267 279


Effect of extrusion temperature and pre-extrusion particle size on

starch digestion kinetics in barley and sorghum grain extrudates

Ghaid J. Al-Rabadia,c, Peter J. Torleyb, Barbara A. Williamsa, Wayne L. Brydena,c,

Michael J. Gidleya,

a Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld

4072, Australia

b National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia

c The University of Queensland, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Gatton, Qld 4343, Australia


Barley and sorghum milled grains were separated into three size fractions (fine, <0.5 mm; medium, 0.51.0 mm; coarse, >1.0 mm) and extruded at two temperature levels (maximum of 100 C or 140 C), to determine the effect of pre-extrusion fraction size on starch digestibility. Following extrusion, in vitro enzymatic starch digestibility was markedly enhanced with a first order rate, typically ten times greater than before extrusion, but following the same trend i.e. faster digestion for finer pre-extrusion grain sizes. For sorghum, the projected maximum digestibility was also reduced with pre-extrusion grain size. There were only minor differences in digestibility following extrusion at 100 C ompared with 140 C. Grains were not pre-conditioned, so moisture uptake during extrusion may have been limited, resulting in extrudates containing residual ungelatinized starch granules. It is proposed that the main effect of extrusion processing was to open up the grain endosperm structure, thereby reducing the diffusion path lengths for amylase to digest starch. The results indicate that an efficient use of extrusion processing could be to target separated larger particles from milled grains for re-combination with finer ground grains for improved energy utilization in monogastric feeds.